The latest formulations designed to tackle acne for today’s teens, helping them achieve clear and glowing skin
Teen skin is prone to acne, which is attributed to multiple factors such as increased sebum production, alterations in the quality of sebum lipids, inflammatory processes, dysregulation of the hormone microenvironment, interaction with neuropeptides, follicular hyperkeratinisation and the proliferation of pathogenic bacteria within the follicle that may form a biofilm on the skin.
The following abstracts look at diverse ways of reducing the risk of teenage acne.
1. Composition for the treatment of acne
US Patent 9,950,023
Application No 14/550,108
Granted 24 April 2018
Assignee Parham Tabibian
Pathogenic organisms like Propionibacterium acnes may form a biofilm on the skin that is difficult to remove and can lead to an inflammatory response and the formation of comedones and pustules.
This patent claims an all-natural composition for treating acne, comprising: N-acetylcysteine (NAC), nicotinamide, resveratrol, rhodionin, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), allicin, propolis and vitamins A, E and D3.
It may also contain Aloe barbadensis and piperine. Allicin is produced by the interaction of the enzyme alliinase with garlic's alliin when garlic is chopped or crushed.
In the human body, allicin activates genes that in turn cause the release and activation of internal enzymatic antioxidant defences such as glutathione, catalase, and superoxide dismutase.
Documented beneficial properties of propolis are its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial actions, and propolis has been included for its role against biofilms.
NAC shows inhibitory effects against biofilms produced by various bacteria including P. acnes. Resveratrol is known for its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects and has anti-androgen and biofilm inhibitory properties.
Aloe barbadensis contains vitamins, enzymes, minerals, sugars, lignin, saponins, salicylic acids and amino acids and has anti-inflammatory properties.
Nicotinamide decreases sebum production by inhibiting sebaceous lipogenesis and provides an anti-inflammatory effect.
Rhodiola is an adaptogen: a plant-based compound that promotes homeostasis and can reduce stress-induced cortisol levels.
EGCG is included to reduce sebum production and for its anti-inflammatory benefits. Vitamin A is included for normalising keratinisation and for reducing sebum production.
Vitamin D3 suppresses cell proliferation in the sebaceous glands and reduces the production of sebum.
Vitamin E has a beneficial role in lipid peroxidation in sebaceous glands and is the major sebum antioxidant.
Although the composition as described is targeted for oral intake it is included because of the interesting properties claimed for its constituents.
2. Chemical inhibitors of sebocyte function
US Patent 9,822,136
Application No 14/998,864
Granted 21 November 2017
Inventors Wei, Edward T; Kim, Seong J
It is said that in young adults with acne, sebum production is increased on average by 59% and there is a x2.2 increase in the squalene content of the lipids.
The patent describes amphiphilic compounds that may be useful for the management of sebum secretion in subjects with acne, oily skin or seborrheic dermatitis.
These compounds are 1-dialkylphosphorylalkanes dissolved in a dermatologically acceptable vehicle and delivered to the skin in a solution, gel, lotion, cream or ointment.
The preferred dialkylphosphorylalkanes are 1-diisopropylphosphoryldecane, 1-diisopropylphosphorylundecane and 1-diisopropylphosphoryldodecane, collectively referred to as Dapa.
A study of activity of Dapa agents were examined on human sebocytes, which showed a potent inhibitory effect on sebocyte function and it was noted that the amphiphilic characteristics of the Dapa enhance potency.
The exact cellular targets that mediate these effects were not characterised, but these Dapa chemicals are believed useful in modulating disorders related to sebum secretion and for other disorders of lipid synthesis and cellular proliferation.
It is claimed that the composition reduces the malignant, unrestrained, proliferation of somatic cells, to reduce the synthesis of lipids and for the reduction of sebum secretion.
3. Methods of treating or ameliorating skin conditions with a magnetic dipole stabilised solution
US Patent 9,867,849
Application No 15/398,233
Granted 16 January 2018
Assignee Reven Pharmaceuticals
The patent describes a composition comprising electro-activated water containing stabilised oxidative species, sodium chloride, sodium bicarbonate, 2 dimethylaminoethanol HCl and one or more ingredients selected from the group consisting of vitamins, salts, acids, amino acids, one or more anaesthetics, heparin, folic acid, lipoic acid and salts thereof, and an antibiotic.
Electro-activated water is sterile and non-pyrogenic and is produced by exposing the water to a strong electromagnetic field force in a tightly isolated and fully enclosed reactor space.
It can produce both a negative (cathodic) and a positive (anodic) stream of activated water.
Other patents are cited that claim therapeutic properties for electrolysed water including antimicrobial properties and for treating disease, suggesting that the origin of disease may be an electro-physiological imbalance and that electrolysed water can restore optimal pH.
It is also suggested that the loss of function, deterioration, destruction and death of human cells relates to the issue of human cellular reliance on oxygen metabolism.
Oxygen uptake intracellularly is governed by the metabolic need for energy and takes place within the mitochondria to produce ATP, the cell's energy source.
Such chemical reactions are not 100% efficient and the resultant release of highly reactive oxygen species is responsible for cellular damage.
The effects of ageing may be attributed, on a molecular level, to the oxidative processes in the cell which is harmful to proteins, lipids and nucleic acids.
By providing sufficient antioxidants, it may be possible to modulate or even reverse the effects of ageing at molecular level.
It is claimed that the composition described can be used to treat or ameliorate skin conditions including acne.
The composition includes nutrients suitable as cofactors for enzymes, vitamins suitable for rapid cellular energy production, pH modifiers and buffer components plus an antibiotic, either erythromycin or gentamicin, and one or more anaesthetics, preferably lignocaine or lidocaine.
The composition has a pH of 3.2-7.6 and an electrical potential of about -120 to about -20 mV, and is incorporated into an emulsion suitable for topical application.
The patent is very long and describes many diseases and claims, but is worth studying for its detailed descriptions of skin problems, including acne, and how they may respond to the various ingredients of the composition.
4. Non-comedogenic and non-acnegenic hair and scalp care formulations and method for use
US Patent 9,949,915
Application No 15/618,420
Granted 24 April 2018
Assignee Clarity Cosmetics
'Acne cosmetica' is a form of acne that is caused or exacerbated by certain cosmetic products, and typically results from a chemically-induced plugging of the hair follicles forming comedones.
Potentially comedogenic components include oils and waxes, PVP/DMAPA acrylates, cyclopentasiloxane, panthenol, dimethicone, some silicones, quaternium-70 and petrolatum.
These ingredients may be comedogenic or may enhance the comedogenicity, irritation or allergic potential of other ingredients.
Claimed are hair and scalp treatment compositions that exclude comedogenic elements.
The shampoo composition comprises guar hydroxypropyltrimonium chloride, phenoxyethanol, ethylhexylglycerin, sodium lauroyl methyl isethionate, cocamidopropylamine oxide, acrylate copolymer, C13-C15 alkanes, bisabolol, aminomethyl propanol and water.
It may also include an anti-inflammatory agent, an anti-irritant agent, an antimicrobial agent, a sebum modulator, a keratolytic agent and mixtures thereof, plus disodium EDTA, glycerin, citric acid, glycol distearate and fragrance.
A second composition is formulated as a hair conditioner and comprises phenoxyethanol, citric acid, stearamidopropyl dimethylamine, cetearyl alcohol, behentrimonium chloride, cetyl palmitate, C13-C15 alkanes, shea butter cetyl esters, bisabolol and water, and may contain disodium EDTA, polysorbate 80, glycerin and fragrance.
Quantitative formulations and methods of preparation are fully described and the patent lists many other materials that may lead to comedone formation.