Genome-wide expression responses to a standardised tannin-enriched extract, called Synastol TC, were investigated in three-dimensional reconstituted human skin tissues through microarray studies.
TC responses were the opposite to those observed in cells exposed to oxidative stress, solar-simulated UV radiation, and wounding, with increased expression of genes associated with water homeostasis, skin barrier establishment, blood vessel development, and circadian rhythms when compared to tissues treated with water.
Also, the key keratinocyte (KC) differentiation makers FLG & LOR and hydration marker AQP9 were further confirmed at mRNA and protein levels.
Consistent with these results, TC increased the expression of transcription factors regulating KC differentiation (FOS, GHRL3, PPARG) as well as key genes involved in skin architecture, such as collagens (COL1A1, COL1A2, COL5A1, COL6A6, COL6A3, COL6A1), proteoglycans (PRELP, OGN), and other matrisomes.
Interestingly, recent studies showed that Collagen type VI plays a dual role in ECM functions and also has innate immune functions with activity against S. aureus, S.pneumonia, E. coli & P. aeruginosa.
In separate assays, TC also inhibited MMP enzymes (MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-9, MMP-12).
Overall, the results from these studies validate that Synastol TC stimulates positive modifications within skin that are not merely superficial but deep and multi-targeted.
The combined targeting of several endpoints provides better chances of delivering true benefits in skin, in sharp contrast to the old one-product-one-target dogma (mostly from undefined extracts) that currently permeates the cosmetic industry.
Publication: WS Swindell, K Bojanowski and RK Chaudhuri, A standardized Terminalia chebula fruit extract alters the expression of genes associated with skin architecture and barrier formation, European J Dermatology, 2020, doi: 10.1684/ejd.2020.3882