Three fragrance-related patents are described: one to improve the water-resistance of perfume; one to enhance the volatility of the less volatile constituents of a perfume; and an aromatherapy composition to relieve stress and provide relaxation
1. Cosmetic composition with watertight fragrance
US Patent 9,265,711
Application No 13/796,659
Granted 23 February 2016
The patent describes a cosmetic composition that enables the perfume component to resist wash off by water and sweat, and to extend its time on the skin.
The composition comprises fragrance and a fragrance-fixing complex consisting of a hydrophobic, alcohol-soluble, carboxylated acrylates/octylacrylamide copolymer and a hydrolysed jojoba ester.
A suitable acrylates/ octylacrylamide copolymer is identified as Dermacryl AQF (INCI: Acrylates copolymer) from AkzoNobel at a preferred level of 0.1-1.0% by weight.
The hydrolysed jojoba ester is also present at a similar level although, in a special embodiment, the jojoba ester and the copolymer constitute a separately prepared complex in the preferred ratio of 1:1.2-2.8 of jojoba ester:polymer.
The preferred method for manufacturing the waterproof cosmetic composition comprises spraying the acrylates copolymer powder into an aqueous/ethanol solution of hydrolysed jojoba esters at a temperature ranging from 18-40°C.
The resulting complex may be dried before use or it can be added directly to the other ingredients of the composition. The complex can be used to fragrance an extensive range of products, and illustrative formulations are included in the patent.
2. Fragrance compositions comprising ionic liquids
US Patent 9,840,680
Application No 14/865,152
Granted 12 December 2017
Assignee Procter & Gamble
The patent describes a fragrance composition comprising ionic liquids for enhanced evaporation of the perfume raw materials.
It also relates to methods of use of the fragrance compositions for perfuming suitable substrates, particularly skin and hair.
It claims a fragrance composition containing dimethyl benzyl carbonyl butyrate as a perfume raw material and at least two ionic liquids plus a volatile solvent and a low volatility co-solvent or a mixture of low volatility co-solvents.
The applicants claim that the volatility of perfume raw materials can span a wide range and impact the evaporation rate and release of the fragrance components from a composition.
For example, highly volatile perfume raw materials tend to smell citrusy, green, light and fresh and may be noticeable for only a few minutes after being applied to a substrate.
Less volatile materials characterised by floral or fruity notes, may be detectable for several hours while the least volatile are typically heavy florals, sweet, musky and woody notes and can last for several days.
Generally, this is not suitable for most fragrance compositions as consumers will use a fragrance and then remove it from their skin after a period of eight to 24 hours or may wish to use another, differently scented product.
If perfumers wished to design a fragrance with materials that evaporate in a given period they would be restricted to the highly volatile characters and be unable to create fragrance profiles derived from the less volatile characters.
The applicants claim there is a need to enhance the evaporation rate of the heavier materials and this can be achieved by the addition of ionic liquids to the composition.
This would enable the creation of fragrance compositions that span a wider range of fragrance characters with substantially all the materials evaporated within a given time frame of one to 12 hours after application.
It was found that ionic liquids can be used to alter the volatility of compounds from a fragrance composition and a consequence of this increased evaporation is that fragrance constituents applied to a substrate will become very weak after a shorter period.
Ionic liquids appear to aid in targeted increases in the evaporation of fragrance components derived from the less volatile perfume raw materials.
Ionic liquids are mixtures of anions and cations that are preferably odourless, have no effective vapour pressure and whose polarity can be readily adjusted to be suitable for a wide range of raw materials.
Particularly preferable ionic liquids are ones that are fully miscible with the perfume raw materials to form a single-phase liquid.
If not entirely miscible, then co-solvents like triethyl citrate can be added to aid in their solubility. Example ionic liquids are given as sodium docusate and potassium acesulfame.
The preferred volatile solvent is ethanol and preferred low volatility co-solvents include benzyl benzoate, diethyl phthalate, isopropyl myristate, propylene glycol, triethyl citrate and mixtures thereof.
The patent is very detailed with extensive lists of raw materials and their vapour pressures used in perfumery plus extensive data on methods of testing; those interested are urged to study the whole document.
3. Perfume and cosmetic composition with anti-stress and relaxing effect
US Patent 9,248,320
Application No 13/257,186
Granted 2 February 2016
Assignee AmorePacific Corporation
Stress refers to a state of psychological or physical tension felt under difficult environments.
Moderate stress can be beneficial since it gives an impetus of life and promotes efficiency and productivity.
However, excessive stress is a health risk factor, so it is important to recognise and manage stress for maintaining and promoting health.
It is claimed that the essential oils used in aromatherapy relieve stress and maintain the balance of autonomic nerves and thereby enhance immune functions.
According to a subjective evaluation study referenced in the patent on stress and aromatherapy, inhalation of aroma oils resulted in reduced stress in working environments.
The patent describes a perfume composition designed to have an anti-stress effect and a cosmetic composition having an anti-stress and relaxing effect.
The perfume composition comprises 50% grapefruit oil, 20% bergamot oil, 10% pine oil, 5% lemon oil, 5% cypress oil, 0.1-5% rose oil, 0.1-5% armoise oil and 0.001- 1.0% Helichrysum extract, based on the total weight of the perfume composition.
The applicants claim that grapefruit oil and bergamot oil have the effect of stabilising and relaxing the mind and body, and the other essential oils further improve the stress-relieving effect.
Helichrysum extract is reported to have superior antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties and be effective in promoting the formation of collagens.
Adding about 1% of the perfume composition containing grapefruit oil and bergamot oil, together with the Helichrysum extract to a cosmetic composition is expected to help relieve stress and relax mind and body.
The patent describes the tests performed to show the effect of the perfume composition.
Twenty subjects were individually isolated within a testing laboratory and sensors to detect brainwaves and physiological signals were attached to the subject.
After two minutes of relaxation, the subject was asked to close their eyes and the sample was provided for one minute at 1-2cm from the nose.
Physiological responses were measured while the subject smelled the sample and after the test the subject was asked to answer a questionnaire about subjective feelings.
These tests are fully described in the patent and the results show that subjects felt more comfortable and relaxed after exposure to the perfume composition.